Des chevaux pieds nus

Bloch Maxence :
Des chevaux pieds nus. Quelles conséquences pour la maréchalerie ?

The effect of frog pressure and downward vertical

The effect of frog pressure and downward vertical load on hoof wall weight-bearing and third phalanx displacement in the horse--an in vitro study.
Olivier A, Wannenburg J, Gottschalk RD, van der Linde MJ, Groeneveld HT.

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretora, Onderstepoort, South Africa.

A shoe was designed to combine the advantages of a reverse shoe and an adjustable heart bar shoe in the treatment of chronic laminitis. This reverse even frog pressure (REFP) shoe applies pressure uniformly over a large area of the frog solar surface. Pressure is applied vertically upward parallel to the solar surface of the frog and can be increased or decreased as required. Five clinically healthy horses were humanely euthanased and their dismembered forelimbs used in an in vitro study. Frog pressure was measured by strain gauges applied to the ground surface of the carrying tab portion of the shoe. A linear variable distance transducer (LVDT) was inserted into a hole drilled in the dorsal hoof wall. The LVDT measured movement of the third phalanx (P3) in a dorsopalmar plane relative to the dorsal hoof wall. The vertical component of hoof wall compression was measured by means of unidirectional strain gauges attached to the toe, quarter and heel of the medial hoof wall of each specimen. The entire limb was mounted vertically in a tensile testing machine and submitted to vertical downward compressive forces of 0 to 2,500 N at a rate of 5 cm/minute. The effects of increasing frog pressure on hoof wall weight-bearing and third phalanx movement within the hoof were determined. Each specimen was tested with the shoe under the following conditions: zero frog pressure; frog pressure used to treat clinical cases of chronic laminitis (7 N-cm); frog pressure clinically painful to the horse as determined prior to euthanasia; frog pressure just alleviating this pain. The specimens were also tested after shoe removal. Total weight-bearing on the hoof wall at zero frog pressure was used as the basis for comparison. Pain-causing and pain-alleviating frog pressures decreased total weight-bearing on the hoof wall (P < 0.05). Frog pressure of 7 N-cm had no statistically significant effect on hoof wall weight-bearing although there was a trend for it to decrease as load increased. Before loading, the pain-causing and pain-alleviating frog pressures resulted in a palmar movement of P3 relative to the dorsal hoof wall compared to the position of P3 at zero frog pressure (P < 0.05). This difference remained statistically significant up to 1300 N load. At higher loads, the position of P3 did not differ significantly for the different frog pressures applied. It is concluded that increased frogpressure using the REFP shoe decreases total hoof wall weight-bearing and causes palmar movement of P3 at low weight-bearing loads. Without a shoe the toe and quarter hoof wall compression remained more constant and less in magnitude, than with a shoe.

Keratinopathogenic mould fungi and dermatophytes

Keratinopathogenic mould fungi and dermatophytes in healthy and diseased hooves of horses.
Keller M, Krehon S, Stanek C, Rosengarten R.

Clinic of Orthopaedics in Ungulates, University of Veterinary Medicine, Wien, Austria.

Specimens of hoof horn from 187 horses were examined for a possible relationship between clinically affected hooves and the occurrence of pathogenic fungi. Specimens were taken from the coronary band and from the stratum externum and medium of the coronary horn and transferred on to Sabouraud dextrose agar, with and without cycloheximide, and incubated at 28 degrees C. Dermatophytes and mould fungi were identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The 732 isolates could be assigned to 26 species of moulds, two different species of the dermatophyte Microsporum and three different species of the dermatophyte Trichophyton. Depending on their pathogenic potential they were assigned to three groups: (i) fungi known to be keratinopathogenic (Acremonium blochii, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria chlamydospora, Geotrichum candidum, Microsporum ferrugineum, Microsporum gypseum, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Trichophyton species, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schönleinii, 57 isolates), (ii) a group of uncertain pathogenicity (223 isolates), and (iii) a group of non-pathogenic species (452 isolates). Eighty per cent of the samples from horses with hoof horn lesions and 66.7 per cent of the samples from horses with slightly affected hoof horn contained fungi of the keratinopathogenic group, whereas only 8.9 per cent of the samples from horses with healthy hoof horn contained fungi of this group. There were no significant correlations between the clinical data and the age, sex or breed of the horses or their bedding and hygiene. Twelve species of fungi were isolated from the air in the horses' stables, but none of them belonged to the keratinopathogenic group.

brittle hoof horn